23 avril 2019

Mes financesVous êtes nouvellement retraité ou allez bientôt le devenir ? Vous avez cotisé à votre REER (régime enregistré d’épargne retraite) pendant de nombreuses années, ce qui vous a permis de faire fructifier votre épargne sans payer d’impôt sur vos revenus de placement. Saviez-vous qu’il existe une façon de faire des retraits qui vous permet à la fois de maintenir votre épargne à l’abri de l’impôt et de retirer votre argent progressivement ? Pensez à un FERR (fonds enregistré de revenu de retraite) !

La transformation d’un REER en FERR est en général une simple opération administrative. Il faut en faire la demande auprès de son institution financière. Comme les placements ne sont pas « désenregistrés », cette opération n’entraîne aucun impôt à payer. Les placements peuvent demeurer les mêmes que ceux détenus dans le REER ; ils peuvent aussi être différents. Dans un FERR, vous continuez donc à gérer vos placements, comme vous le faisiez dans un REER. Les placements admissibles sont les mêmes, sauf de rares exceptions, et ceux qui vous seront conseillés dépendront de votre profil d’investisseur.

Retrait minimum

La transformation d’un REER en FERR entraîne néanmoins une conséquence à considérer. Dès que le régime est converti en FERR, les lois fiscales vous obligent à en retirer un montant minimum avant le 31 décembre de chaque année. Le montant du retrait est imposable ; il s’ajoute donc à vos revenus de l’année du retrait et devient imposable à votre taux d’imposition marginal de l’année en question. Notez qu’il n’y a pas de montant de retrait maximum d’un FERR.

Jusqu’à 71 ans, le montant de ce retrait minimum est calculé selon une formule établie par l’Agence du revenu du Canada (ARC) en fonction de votre âge — ou celui de votre conjoint si vous préférez — ainsi que selon la valeur de votre FERR au début de l’année.

À partir de 71 ans, les retraits minimums ne sont plus calculés selon cette formule, mais selon un pourcentage de la valeur du FERR au début de l’année. Ce pourcentage est progressif, c’est-à-dire qu’il augmente légèrement au fil des ans. À 71 ans, il est de 5,28 % de la valeur du régime au 1er janvier de l’année en cours ; à 80 ans, 6,82 % ; à 90 ans, 11,92 % jusqu’à ce qu’il plafonne à 20 % à partir de 95 ans.

Que le retrait minimum soit calculé selon la formule établie par l’ARC ou selon le pourcentage applicable, il s’agit d’un retrait minimum. Vous pouvez donc choisir de retirer un montant supérieur, selon vos besoins financiers.

Conversion obligatoire à 71 ans

Il n’y a pas d’âge minimum pour convertir un REER en FERR, vous pouvez donc le faire — sans jeu de mots — à tout âge. Notez qu’à 71 ans, ou plus précisément avant le 31 décembre de l’année où vous atteindrez cet âge, vous devrez convertir vos REER en FERR, c’est une obligation légale !

Flexibilité

Quel est le meilleur moment pour convertir vos REER en FERR ? Quand vous en avez besoin ! Pas un besoin ponctuel, pour lequel un simple retrait du REER fait très bien l’affaire, mais un besoin récurrent. Il est beaucoup plus souple, et moins coûteux, de le faire à partir d’un FERR que d’un REER. Pour bien des gens, cela veut dire dès le début de la retraite.

Bref, le FERR permet de maintenir votre argent à l’abri de l’impôt jusqu’au moment où vous le retirez. Il procure une souplesse dans la gestion des revenus de retraite que ne permet pas le REER. Allez-vous le « FERR » ?

Note : Cet article vous est présenté à titre informatif seulement et ne constitue pas une opinion de nature juridique, financière, fiscale ou autre. Les circonstances et éléments présentés peuvent varier en fonction de votre situation personnelle. Avant d’agir, nous vous invitons à consulter un professionnel. La Capitale ne peut être tenue responsable des conséquences de toute décision basée sur le contenu du présent article.

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146 commentaires

146 Replies to “Que faire d’un FERR ?”

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