11 mars 2020

Plusieurs travailleurs âgés de 50 à 69 ans, ayant pris volontairement leur retraite de manière anticipée, retournent sur le marché du travail. En effet, le parcours classique de retraite dans lequel on quitte le marché du travail de façon définitive est de moins en moins recherché par les gens en fin de carrière (une personne sur deux se retire définitivement du marché du travail)[1]. Selon Statistique Canada, dans la tranche d’âge de 50 à 54 ans, 69 % d’entre eux retournent travailler dans les deux ans suivant leur retraite anticipée. Bien souvent, ce retour s’effectue dans un domaine différent de celui qu’ils ont connu tout le long de leur carrière.

Voici les principales craintes mentionnées par les travailleurs expérimentés et des trucs que nous vous proposons pour vous adapter.

Difficultés d’intégration en emploi

Plusieurs appréhensions subsistent chez les chercheurs d’emploi de plus de 50 ans quant à la perception ou aux préjugés de l’employeur sur leurs compétences et leurs capacités.

Les principales craintes ressenties par les aînés et par certains employeurs sont les suivantes :

  • Peu d’années à offrir sur le marché du travail
  • Attentes salariales élevées
  • Résistance aux changements
  • Difficultés à être supervisés
  • Absences fréquentes pour des problèmes de santé
  • Manque de connaissances en informatique
  • Difficultés d’adaptation

Comment contrer ces perceptions ?

La plupart du temps, ces craintes se révèlent fausses. Cependant, les connaître permettra aux travailleurs expérimentés de rassurer son futur employeur et d’augmenter ses chances d’être embauché.

Voici quelques stratégies gagnantes :

  • Ciblez un objectif d’emploi réaliste
  • Confirmez votre capacité d’adaptation aux changements à l’employeur
  • Faites valoir vos connaissances en informatique et votre ouverture à apprendre
  • Démontrez votre disponibilité, votre motivation et votre flexibilité dans les tâches

Dans tous les cas, n’oubliez pas que bien souvent, les employeurs attribuent plusieurs qualités à leurs employés plus âgés : ils sont stables, productifs, expérimentés, méthodiques et engagés.

Difficultés physiques ou psychologiques

Dans certains cas, la réorientation d’emploi résulte d’un changement dans la forme physique, et ce, au détriment de la formation et de la compétence. Ainsi, 25 % des gens âgés de 55 à 64 ans estiment qu’il serait plus facile de se trouver un emploi s’ils étaient plus jeunes et en meilleure santé.

Dans cette optique, sur le plan psychologique, les personnes de plus de 50 ans en recherche d’emploi peuvent vivre un sentiment de dévalorisation et se sentir victimes de préjugés basés sur leur âge.

Comment contrer ces craintes ?

En premier lieu, il peut être pertinent de faire le bilan des 20 et des 30 dernières années. Cette réflexion a pour but de déterminer ce que l’on veut pour les années à venir et d’identifier ce que l’on ne veut plus. Vous pourrez ainsi définir un but réaliste, en fonction de votre potentiel. Plusieurs ressources, dont des conseillers en orientation, possèdent l’expertise requise pour vous aider à vous repositionner et à découvrir les options qui s’offrent à vous. En fin de carrière, vous pouvez peut-être envisager des postes que vous n’auriez pas considérés auparavant : temps plein, temps partiel, travail temporaire, mandats ponctuels.

De plus, le meilleur conseil est de mettre les chances de votre côté en ayant une bonne forme physique et mentale : lire, marcher et garder une pensée positive.

Difficultés financières

La réorientation de carrière a une influence directe sur le salaire. En effet, en changeant d’emploi, votre salaire augmentera ou diminuera forcément. Cependant, cette augmentation ou cette diminution aura une incidence directe sur votre taux d’imposition. Ainsi, le palier d’imposition ne sera plus le même, ce qui peut avoir un impact important sur vos revenus.

C’est aussi le cas si vous recevez des rentes gouvernementales et que vous souhaitez augmenter vos revenus par le biais d’un travail.

En résumé, le salaire visé par un retour au travail devrait être très réfléchi. C’est pourquoi plusieurs retraités se tournent vers des emplois à temps partiel afin de ne pas « mettre en danger » leurs revenus. Si vous en ressentez le besoin, un conseiller financier pourrait vous aiguiller davantage quant aux meilleures options qui s’offrent à vous.

Dans les dernières années, certaines mesures gouvernementales ont été mises en place pour favoriser le maintien ou le retour des travailleurs d’expérience sur le marché du travail. En 2019, le gouvernement Legault a annoncé un « crédit d’impôt pour prolongation de carrière », qui portait le crédit à 10 000 $ et, depuis le 1er mars dernier, les prestataires du Régime de retraite du personnel d’encadrement (RRPE) qui réintègrent le secteur public peuvent recevoir jusqu’à la totalité de leur rente sans avoir à participer de nouveau au RRPE.

Le mot de la fin : ne pas avoir peur

Dans tous les cas, la réussite est dans l’ajustement et sortir de sa zone de confort nous réserve peut-être de belles surprises ! C’est pourquoi, malgré les craintes que vous pourriez avoir, il ne faut pas hésiter à foncer et à demander de l’aide au besoin : amis, famille, conseillers financiers et conseillers en emploi. Plusieurs ressources existent pour vous aider à déterminer vos objectifs et à les atteindre !

Lucie Gamache, c. o., conseillère en emploi chez GIT Services-conseils en emploi

 

______________________

[1] SIMARD, Lise., Intervenir auprès des chercheurs d’emploi de plus de 50 ans, février 2006, https://www.emploiquebec.gouv.qc.ca/uploads/tx_fceqpubform/15_etude_50ansplus.pdf

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  75. Bravo pour cet article, madame Gamache. Il correspond tellement à ce que j’écris depuis des années… et explique dans mes cours de préparation à la retraite. Je vais aussi le mentionner ainsi que votre entreprise dans mon prochain livre (Quoi faire à la retraite. 8 secteurs d’activités, seconde édition) qui va paraître cet automne 2020…

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